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how diverse was “Ghost in the Shell”, really? : 11/18/17

hey friends!

it’s been a while since I’ve done any sort of film criticism/theory posting, but today I want to dive back in. I don’t think I’ve written anything in depth since my two-part essay on the Heist Movie Genre, but recently I was reminded that I wanted to examine the issue of diversity in the live-action adaptation of “Ghost in the Shell.”

movie adaptations are tough. for one it’s a different medium, which means somethings just have to be changed. I wrote about the process of adaptation here. it seems that no matter what is done, people get very upset with any changes from the original text. whether it’s casting an actor that doesn’t look like the source character, a costume that is different, or a change in a hero’s powers.

back when the film came out there was much internet outrage about the “whitewashing” of the lead character. people were offended that Scarlett Johansson had been cast in the lead role… instead of an actor with Asian ancestry. when I watched the movie, I was struck by how diverse the cast and world was. it had probably been 10 plus years since I’d seen the anime, so I wasn’t sure my memory served me correctly. I made a mental note that once the new film was available to purchase, I’d buy both and compare the two to see what sort of changes were made in the adaptation. and for good measure, I also bought the original manga, from which both are based.

now, writing about diversity in cinema is a minefield, actually writing about diversity in anything is, and as such, I feel the need for a couple disclaimers.

• the lack leading roles for non-white leads in Hollywood movies is a real, and ongoing problem.
• diversity in cinema is important to me, and not just in words, I put it into practice.

take a look at who I cast in the films I make in this blog. or if you’re in a hurry, here’s the TL;DR, out of 31 roles – Men: 19 (10 people of color / PoC), Women: 12 (6 PoC), total PoC: 16.

how does that compare with Hollywood films as a whole? well, USC Annenberg’s Media, Diversity, & Social Change Initiative did a study in 2014 that looked at 30,000+ characters and found that the men/women ratio was 2.3:1. mine was 1.58:1. racially, the percentage of white/non-white actors was 73/27. mine was 48/52. more on this in Addendum B.

okay, with that out of the way, let’s dig in.

anime has always had an interesting, and fluid portrayal of race. I’m not an expert on it, so I’m not going to get too far into that rabbit hole here, but if you are interested in learning more— here’s an article about the look of characters in anime and here’s one that talks about an audiences’ perceived bias in anime. the most interesting article I found, which gives some great historical context on the evolution of Japanese pop-art is this piece by Emily Yoshida—I highly recommend reading for those who are interested in digging in deeper.

taking account both these things (bias and fluidity of character design), I’m not going to make any assumptions on the race of characters in the “Ghost in the Shell” anime (which I’ll shorthand GIS95, after its release year). for the live action “Ghost in the Shell” (GIS17), it was possible to find out the ethnicity of most of the named characters thanks to Google and IMDB. I didn’t find the manga to be particularly enlightening in this regard, many of the characters are not named and often the design of the characters changes dramatically from panel to panel. there is also a fairly large extended universe of additional movies, TV series, video games, and OVA. I haven’t seen all of those, so will be referring to them collectively as the “Extended Universe”.

my default assumption for GIS95 is that ALL characters are Japanese, based on their character names… unless specifically stated otherwise. for example “Dr. Willis” is referred to as American and has a Western name, so I think it’s safe to say that he is not Japanese. where as a character like Batuo, who, in the words of Ms. Yoshida, “looks like an anime Dolph Lundgren…” will be considered to be Japanese because he has a Japanese name.

the films don’t follow the exact same plot, and have a fair amount of different characters, so I’m going to group them into good guys, bad guys, and other and compare there different portrayals below.

Major aka Motoko Kusanagi. 
she’s has an entirely artificial cyborg body. only her brain & ghost are human. in both GIS95 and the manga we do not learn if Major was every actually human. part of the story and her character’s struggle is accepting her humanity—regardless of if she ever was really human in the first place. it’s only in the Extended Universe and GIS17 that we learn of her human, and Japanese backstory.

this is the head of Section 9, the covert government branch that Major and the rest of the team work for. in GIS17, an English language film, he is the only main character to speak Japanese and was portrayed by the Japanese actor Takeshi Kitano. here he is in both films.

the Section 6 team had several additional characters added in GIS17. two of these come from the extended universe, one is entirely new.

this character was changed from Asian to Caucasian. although I have to say, he looks almost exactly like the anime version—perhaps this is my bias? he’s played by Danish actor, Pilou Asbæk.

the only “all human” member of the team, his race was portrayed as Asian in both films. in GIS17 he’s played by Chin Han, an actor born in Singapore.

changed from Asian to Pacific Islander. he’s played by the Fujian/Australian actor Lasarus Ratuere.

this is an entirely new character. the actress that plays her, Danusia Samal, is Kurdish & Polish.

this character is from the manga & extended universe. his wikipedia entry says he’s an “Ex US Navy Seal”. obviously, he could be of Asian decent and serve in the US Military, but his backstory could indicate a different ancestry. in GIS17 he’s played by Yutaka Izumihara, a Japanese actor.

this is a named character in GIS17, and is the only team member to not have any lines. he is in the manga and extended universe, where the character is almost albino in color… in the film he is played by a Zimbabwe-born New Zealand actor, Tawanda Manyimo. (this still was part of publicity materials unlike others its not a screen capture from the film.)

Director Nakamura & Minister of Foreign Affairs
in GIS95 Director Nakamura is the leader of Section 6, a rival agency. while this rivalry exists in the Manga, it is absent from GIS17. we also meet the Minister of Foreign Affairs, again he doesn’t appear in GIS17.

Cutter/Dr. Willis
the lead antagonist in GIS17 is Cutter. he works for Hanka Robitics and is best matched by Dr. Willis, one of the Antagonists from GIS95. the newer film was consistent in keeping the villain as a western white guy.

The Garbage Collectors/Terrorist
in GIS95 the garbage collectors are working for a mysterious man who then has a firefight and chase with Major and Section 9. in GIS17, the garbage dudes (credited as Skinny Man & Bearded Man) engage in the fight and the 3rd character is eliminated.

the Terrorist character (I think that is correct credit) has the darkest skin color of any character in GIS95, is referred to as member of a “militant immigrant organization” and is named “Feng” a traditionally Chinese surname. this makes him one of the only “non-Japanese” characters in the anime.

in GIS17 both are played by Caucasian actors.

the Yakuza Bar
the seedy bar that Major and Batou go to hunt down Kuze is full of new PoC characters. most of them don’t have lines, so I’m not going to go into all of them. but one that really stood out was Tony, played by Malaysian actor, Pete Teo.

this is another example of characters that were changed and combined. story wise, he is a mix of the Puppetmaster from GIS95 and Kuze from the extended universe. the Puppetmaster was an AI that we saw portrayed as a blonde haired, blue-eyed female robot, Kuze was a Japanese man with an entirely cyborg body. In GIS17 this combined character was played by Michael Pitt, a caucasian actor.

The Ambassador
interestingly enough, in GIS95 (and the manga) the Major assassinates a foreign diplomat. in GIS217, Major instead saves the Ambassador, who is also referred to as the President of the African Federation and is played by Chris Obi—a British actor of Nigerian descent.

Dr. Ouelet/Dr. Dahlin/Technician(?)
in GIS95 there is one “doctor” who talks. I think his character name is “Technician” although I wasn’t able to track it down. what I do know is that there are TWO named doctors in GIS17 and both of them are women. the portrayal of women in STEM positions is another problem in Hollywood movies, namely there aren’t many of these roles for women. here’s a quote from a Forbes article on the subject:

“And forget seeing women in STEM jobs. When characters held those positions, 88.4% were men and 11.6% were women. This calculates into a gender ratio of 7.6 STEM males to every 1 STEM female.”

so we have one Asian man turned into two Caucasian females, the French actor Juliette Binoche and Anamaria Marina a British actor of Romanian descent.

this is a new character that does not exist in GIS95 or the manga. she’s played by Adwoa Aboah, an British actor of Ghanaian descent.

this character is Major’s human mother. she’s played the Japanese actor, Kaori Momoi. this character is not in GIS95 or the manga.

so there you have it. was the 2017 film more diverse than the anime or manga? I think it’s pretty clear that it was. does that “excuse” the casting of Scarlett as Major? I don’t know. I’m sure there was any number of Asian, Pacific Islander, or Hapa actors that could have done a fantastic job in the roll, but would they have had the box-office track record that would indicate the projected earnings that would allow a studio to green-light a 110 million dollar movie? again, I don’t know.

here’s a couple of things that I do know.

1) the portrayal of women in GIS17 is light years ahead of the source manga. in almost every instance, the women in the manga are portrayed as sex objects—if not outright sex robots. take a look at how these technicians/scientists are dressed and compare them to the scientists in GIS17. the anime, GIS95, avoids the objectification of women found in the manga. unfortunately it has basically no female characters other than Major.

2) the portrayal of non-Japanese characters in GI17 is light years ahead of both GI95 and the manga. here is the one instance of a potentially African character in GI95… it’s a mannequin. and in the manga there is one background character, an American soldier whose cartoonish portrayal borders on caricature. now compare that to the opening sequence of GI17 that features a multitude of characters of African decent… as well as all the named characters mentioned above.

which brings me to my final thought: the reason to keep an element from the original should not be simply “because it was in the original.” if it did, GIS17 would have been un-diverse and incredibly sexist. there are numerous factors to take into consideration when adapting a property, things like changes in: culture, societal norms, and technology. there are also practical considerations that have to be weighed like production, financing, and scheduling issues.

now, I know some will disagree with this, but I think that with adaptations its important not to treat source materials like holy texts. things will need to be changed. does the change serve the narrative? is it true to the world of story? in the context of the piece of media—does it work? those are the things that are important. having a fundamentalist adherence to the original misses the point of storytelling. the goal shouldn’t be to faithfully recreate a previous work, the goal should be to tell the best possible story to the biggest possible audience. and to do that anything should be fair game.

what are your thoughts about adaptations? any project you think did it particularly well? let me know in the comments below—and thanks for reading!


A) for those of you that made it this far, here’s my monday-morning director way of fixing some of the problems in GIS17. assuming that Scarlett is needed in order to finance the film, there are a couple of changes I would make. first, I would cast Kuze with an Asian actor. as you may have noted from the images above, Michael Pitt looks remarkably like the Extended Universe version of Kuze—but having two caucasian actors playing characters that are “asian” in the world of the story, even if their bodies are cyborgs and therefore “post racial”, is problematic. Pitt is not an international film actor, so replacing him should not hurt financing like replacing Johansson would. this would create a more balanced view of what a “cyborg” looks like in the future world. next, I would change Major’s backstory from Japanese to poor immigrant. the future society the characters live in is very clearly multi-ethnic and mixed, there is no reason, other than fidelity to Extended Universe, that her backstory needed to be Japanese—she could just as easily have been from a poor Caucasian family that moved to Japan. in many ways, this is more fitting with the themes of exploitation of the poor & working class that the film explores.

B) it’s interesting to note that the racial breakdown found in the Anneberg study is almost identical to the US population as reported by the 2010 Census, like within 1%… which is rather remarkable. STILL it’s important to take into account that the study looked at “speaking or named characters”, my hunch is that number would be no where near as close if only LEAD characters were analyzed. and as I mentioned in the opening remarks, I think that the lack of non-white aka PoC leads is an important issue for media creators to address. America is a multi-cultural and mixed society… and our films should reflect this!

Flawless Raider, Part 2 : 07/28/17
howdy friends!


in the time since the last post a lot has happened. I went to Washington, then the San Diego Comic Con, and the Destiny 2 Beta was live. It was pretty cool to peak around the world and kick the tires of the new game. I’m looking forward to more adventures fighting back evil space monsters with my friends soon.


in the meantime, let me get into the finale of my “Flawless Raider” quest. last time I wrote about how this was the one achievement I was missing… and how the task was going to be hard. in fact, I was going to need to train. and train I did!


beating the Raid the first time took me hours of game time… spread out over two separate days. but I did it. even though I died a LOT, it still felt like quite an accomplishment to finish a 6 person activity by myself. now I just had to do it again… without dying once. *gulp*


I’m breaking this down in a day by day recounting of it.


cleared the Abyss first try. this part was kind funny. the Thrall have no idea I’m chilling all invisible status right in between them.


I was able to make the Bridge jump on the second try – as soon as I make jump, I’m good. it’s just the darn jump!
Shriekers, struggled on this. grr. took me three tries.


Ir Yût, – had a couple of missteps. was taking two shots on shriekers. wasn’t on Sarcophogus right. Eventually got it.
this time Crota was much quicker. my technique was fine, just execution was off.

actually my technique wasn’t good either… as I would later realized. the main issue is I wasn’t getting three sword hits in on Crota… and that was a combo of using the Telesto fusion rifle and just not being fast enough.

overall, took me about one hour. which really isn’t that bad.

this day started with the PSN network down! sigh. used the time to work on a TV pitch, so yay!
this was a pretty good run, I did the Abyss, Bridge, and Ir Yut all on the first try… but then died rocketing sword bearer.
Crota still took a few tries.


work up thinking about the Raid. this is starting to get bad. it’s consuming my life. what’s next, dreams?


the entire process was a struggle. I thought I was doing so good yesterday.


but I did refine my Crota technique a bit. I had in the knife through, plus a “swipe” when I jump to move me forward a bit quicker.


Abyss fine, no problemo.
but still at the Bridge I died several time.
Ir Yut paused in a weird spot and I couldn’t get a shot on her… and died.
Crota still giving me troubles. it’s hard to time the kneels right. sometimes it takes 3 shots with Telesto, sometimes 4. can’t figure out why – but that timing makes a big difference.


tried switching back to Gjhorn. found that 1 takes down sometimes… other times it leaves a sliver of shield. but that small amount can equal grenade or knife. so if I hit him with that first, then jump while Wolfpack rounds are still swirling, I can get in close to more hits.


sometimes you gotta take a break and test this stuff out… which I did


it takes SIX sword slams to kill this big space jerk, so can be done in two rounds if I can get my timing right… and that’s a big IF…




feeling good. starting off scheming. ran through the Abyss. made it across Bridge second try.
Ir Yut did something new, she was pausing on OTHER side of crystal. never seen that before. tried baiting her by window, seemed to get her in position. will try this from now on.


by this time I’d gotten pretty dang good at the ol “wombo comb”. watch how I knife, grenade, and headshot this entire batch of enemies in seconds.


Crota then… man. he was glitching! first he hid around the corner.


then I rocketed myself trying to kill Thrall with the sword. (note: the sword is on a timer… eventually it just disappears and you have whatever weapon you were holding when you picked it up… in this case it was my rocket and I just kept swinging… which turned into a shot… and I died.)


finally Crota didn’t kneel with a knife + gjally shot. wtfffffff.


today was tough. I struggled throughout.
first I fell in a hole during the Abyss.
then I couldn’t make it on the “safe” rock at end.
I couldn’t make the bridge jump.
Crota didn’t kneel right…


BUT, my plan to “bait” Ir Yut by going to the window worked. just by running over in that area I was able to make sure she was in the correct spot for an easy dispatching. so I got that going for me.


cruised through the Abyss… then nailed the Bridge on the first try. woohoo!


but then things got weird. in the Hallway a thrall jumped in front of me and I rocketed myself.


okay, no problem. I’ll just jump and shoot.


wtffff. a CABLE. you can rocket a CABLE??? I didn’t even know this was possible. #goodtimes


then I got to Crota… who proved to be just as much of a pain in the asteroid as the others… here’s a sweet video of him not kneeling.


le sigh. eventually I got him… and with only TWO swords. this was the first time I did that… so I’m getting better?


DAY 10
this day I had a little trouble with Abyss, I mean really? I shouldn’t be having problems here.
then on Bridge I didn’t have rockets for the Ogres. and didn’t have the right gear on… I got overwhelmed by Thrall and died.


after that though… clear sailing. I passed the Hallway, Ir Yut, and Crota all on the first try. and Crota with just two swords!


such smash much timing. very wow.

DAY 11


…only my notes didn’t say frick.


that was literally all I wrote from that day.


I was pretty ecstatic. I’ve had a fair amount of accomplishment moments in video games, but this was definitely the pinnacle. there hadn’t been something as difficult that I’d specifically worked for so much before… and it was thrilling to get it done.


after reviewing the video footage I can tell you this.


the Abyss was a breeze.
my technique at the Bridge spot on.
I played it safe at the Hallway… and made it through.


then at Ir Yut something new happened. normally I use the Sleeper Simulant Fusion rifle to kill the witch… but I was out of heavy ammo. and I couldn’t take a synth. these are special “consumable” items that refill a particular ammo type… and they have a five minute timer. you can see in the video I have 30 seconds left on my timer… but only 25 seconds left to kill her. gulp.


there was ONE brick of secondary ammo. this gave me FOUR shots. but it would take FIVE to kill her. now… this is where things get awesome. the LDR 5001 Sniper Rifle I have has a special perk called “Triple Tap”. it means that if you get three Critical Hits in quick succession you get an EXTRA round of ammo.


+1 Ammo


it was probably the coolest moment of my entire quest for Flawless Raider, improvising and performing the clutch… and it came at the best possible time.


I mopped up the subsequent adds, then moved on to Crota. my previous technique held strong and I iced him in just two swords.


and threw in a little t-bag action… because I’m an adult. haha


and the rewards, the “Flawless Raider” trophy and the “Guardian Lord” for earning all of the achievements the game had to offer.



and that was it. after 11 days of hard space-fighting I accomplished my goal… and if you want to watch the entire 30 minute final run, I’ve got it all uploaded to my “yetistache” youtube channel. thinking about putting some more gaming content up there… perhaps with Destiny 2 I’ll go crazy.


a few timestamps in case you want to see the parts that I struggled with earlier… and it has sound!



thanks for coming along for the journey. and if you’re on PSN, I’m “yetieque.” let’s play!




Flawless Raider, Part 1 : 07/13/17

howdy friends!

I wrote this blog originally for the Activision blog… but since they couldn’t use .GIFs… it didn’t really work. part of the fun of video game posts is seeing the video game action, so not being able to do that meant the post just wouldn’t be as interesting. that being said, this was one of my favorite blogs that I wrote, and the first time I’ve ever “trained” for an eSport. by which I mean, I practiced and played a LOT to accomplish a very specific and rather challenging goal.

so without further ado, please enjoy this blog.

so a few months back I was looking at my Destiny trophies from Year One and realized there was just one that I had yet to earn – “Flawless Raider.” Just by the name, this one seemed near impossible. I don’t know about you, but I’ve never finished a raid without dying. and I don’t think I’ve ever been in a party that didn’t wipe at least a few times. most of the raids I’ve been on include multiple wipes… with lots of deaths in between. (“wiping” means your entire six person team dies and you have to start a section over.) just think about getting “Flawless Raider” made me a little anxious, but I still wanted to get it. it’s not that I’m one of those gamers that has to get every trophy/achievement… in fact, I’ve never done it, but knowing that this was the ONLY one I had left was like an itch that I couldn’t scratch. I needed to get it done.

my first thought was to get a group of clanmates together for a weekend attempt. everyone would need to block out the entire afternoon, commit to multiple restarts, be skilled and mellow… but people are busy and it was getting harder and harder to get a group together for a “normal” run, let alone an attempt at flawless. so it just didn’t seem practical. for a while I gave up on it, but then I stumbled upon a step-by-step guide to getting the Flawless Raider trophy by doing Crota’s End solo. yeah, solo. as in, instead of six people you do it alone.

back when we used to run this raid weekly, we’d often send a Hunter ahead to finish The Abyss by themselves while the rest of us had a dance party at the spawn. A cheap trick? Maybe… but it was no lamp-jump, that’s for sure. so I knew that part could be done by one person.

The Bridge was another story. while I’d seen people sword-swipe across the chasm, I’d never been good at this, by which I mean that I’d never been able to make it across the pit without the bridge being formed. this section required three people standing on plates plus another guardian holding the sword. I’d completed this part of the raid with only four players, but that usually meant the three that stayed behind would die, leaving the sword bearer to complete the encounter. obviously in a Flawless Raider world this would not work. this meant that having anything less than a full fireteam of six would require people sword swiping across and that just seemed like more trouble than it was worth. better to learn how to cross on my own.

after that was the “Thrall-way” I didn’t expect that to give me any trouble. then the witch, Ir Yût, who I figured would be challenging but not impossible, and finally Crota. I’d never beat Crota solo, but I’d been able to defeat Thalnok aka “Mini-Crota” in the Court of Oryx by myself many times and I was now so over-leveled (ahem, 400) that it couldn’t be that hard, right? well, dear readers, I would soon find out.

step one research. I boned up on my Reddit reading and youtube watching. these pretty much confirmed what I’d been thinking. I was impressed that there were guides for soloing with every class, but I’m a Titan guy — so that was going to be how I’d do it. I knew that it wasn’t going to be easy, so I committed to multiple days of training. my plan was to play through the raid, no matter how many times I died, until I had it down. I wouldn’t worry about starting over until I could clear every section on the first or second try.

I was ready to start, so I loaded up my Titan, leveled up my Universal Remote , and equipped No Back Up Plans. for those of you that don’t know, Universal Remote is a shotgun that fits in your primary weapon slot, and No Back Up Plans give you a force barrier on shotgun kills… I planned on shotgunning my way to glory through the waves of Thralls in The Abyss. then using my Tormod’s Bellows rocket launcher (with Tripod & Tracking) dispatching the ogre at the end.

literally my first run…


okay, so it had been a while since I’d done Crota’s End. obviously I needed to wait a bit longer for the bridge to form.

no problem. once on the ground it should be a cakewalk for a 400 level Titan like myself…

Abyss Nope

I could barely make it past the first few lamps without dying. and there are 15 of them


this did not look good.

okay, what about my Hunter? back to The Tower I went. I knew I need a few things, 1) the Mida Multitool. this scout rifle, in addition to being a brutal weapon gives +2 agility. more speed = more better. 2) a good shotgun for the Knights. no problem, I have those in spades 3) the aforementioned rocket launcher for ogre at end and finally 4) the Don’t Touch Me gauntlets. these exotic gloves give a brief period of invisibility when taking melee damage. so if you get hit by say, a Thrall or a Knight, you vanish!

perfect. back to the Moon I went!

The Blade Dancer actually has a bunch of perks that help increase your invisibility-ness. Escape Artist for panic-blink-strike vanishing, Shadowjack for longer invisibility effect, and Stalker to crouch and disappear. with all these selected I was feeling pretty good. this time I cleared The Abyss on the first try. YESSS. I was stoked.

Abyss Loadout

The Bridge however, just as I suspected was another matter. I switched to a Harrowed Doom of Chelchis scout, a LDR 5001 sniper, and the Gjallarhorn. with “yellow bar” Wizards and Ogres on the other side, I was going to need some serious firepower to kill them on my own. (yellow bar enemies are significantly harder to kill then normal bad-guys) I also took off my Don’t Touch Me’s and put on the Bones of Eao. these boots upgrade your double jump to a triple jump, so you get the “Gun Slinger” jump on a Blade Dancer and with a bit more height. the perfect thing for jumping across a giant death chasm, right? but man, I have the hardest time landing on stuff with the blade dancer jumps. maybe it’s my Titan-bias. maybe I just need to “git gud”, I dunno. either way, just getting on a pillar to shoot the Sword Bearer was challenging (and honestly I never got it down), but luckily, being my light was high enough I could kill him from the ground, if need be.

then came the matter of swiping across. as predicted was a bit challenging for me. but I found that if I headed straight, angled to the left, then at least landed on the rock, I could sword-swipe up the side of it. who knew?! once I finally made it up to the top of the platform, I was able to defeat the Gatekeeper and all the other bad guys without too much trouble. again feeling pretty good. it wasn’t long before I was at Ir Yût, The Deathsinger. she proved a bit challenging for me, but I stumbled my way through. (Naturally, the next day I read/watched a great post about defeating her solo style. I’ll get into that technique next week…)

finally, I was at Crota. And let me tell you it was really, really freaking hard. I tried a bunch of techniques. I tried Gjallarhorn, Sleeper Simulant, Dragon’s Breath… I could NOT get him to “kneel” consistently. and if you don’t get him to kneel, you can’t damage him with the sword. and if you can’t damage him, well… then you’ll never kill him.

Crota nope

was I not doing enough damage? was he glitching? what was the problem? (glitching refers to a problem with the connection or the game… as in “it’s not my fault I swear!!!!!”

I don’t know… but eventually after many, many tries I finally got him. it was a pretty good feeling to take out that giant space jerk by myself. suck it, Crota.

Hell Yeah!

but on that first attempt at the raid I’d died about a bazillion times which if you’re keeping track is about a bazzillion times more than I could. getting the Flawless Raider Trophy was going to be a bit harder than I expected…

next week: does Yeti break his controller? leave personal hygiene behind? abandon his friends, family, and career in an attempt to become legend?

find out right here… with even more awesome GIF action!


p.s. “Yeti” = “yetiesque” which is my PSN gamertag. let’s play!